As marine turtles traverse entire ocean basins, a number of techniques have been developed to gather information on their movements at sea. These range from basic methods, such as mark and recapture using flipper tags, to more technically advanced, expensive approaches, such as satellite tracking. Here we report the first published use of geolocation by light, using global location sensing (GLS) units, to estimate the locations of marine turtles in the Mediterranean. We attached units to 9 green Chelonia mydas and 3 loggerhead Caretta caretta turtles which had nested in Cyprus in previous years. One individual of each species was also fitted with a satellite transmitter for comparison. GLS units were retrieved on subsequent visits made by instrumented turtles during the same nesting season. In total, 28 GLS units were recovered from 12 individuals. The mean great-circle distance between the mean daily position calculated from satellite tracking and the corresponding mean light-based geolocation over the same time period was 50.3 km for green turtles and 57.6 km for loggerhead turtles. We suggest that GLS technology offers potential utility for identifying large-scale movements, migratory pathways, and over-wintering or foraging sites of adult female marine turtles.
Dear EarthTalk: Can earthquake energy be harnessed for power, particularly in places like Japan? Also, how can Japan, so vulnerable to earthquakes, even have nuclear power? –– Sasha M., AustraliaWhile it is no doubt theoretically possible to generate electricity by harnessing the kinetic energy of shifting tectonic plates below the Earth’s crust, pulling it off from a practical standpoint would be a real logistical challenge—not to mention prohibitively expensive compared to harnessing other forms of energy, renewable or otherwise.Big earthquakes throw off vast amounts of energy. According to Beth Buczynski of the CrispGreen website, researchers have calculated that the January 2010 magnitude 7.0 earthquake that killed upwards of 220,000 people in Haiti released as much energy as 31 of the atomic bombs the U.S. dropped on Hiroshima in 1945. And the magnitude 9.0 earthquake that struck northeast Japan in March 2011 unleashed the equivalent of more than 15,000 Hiroshima bombs. That’s a lot of energy indeed.“The total energy from an earthquake includes energy required to create new cracks in rock, energy dissipated as heat through friction, and energy elastically radiated through the earth,” reports the U.S. Geological Survey’s Earthquake Hazards Program. “Of these, the only quantity that can be measured is that which is radiated through the earth.” Likewise, only this radiated energy—which is what shakes buildings and is recorded by seismographs—could be harnessed given the dedication of enough resources and the proper implementation of the right technologies.Just how to harness tectonic energy is the big question. One way would involve stringing quartz crystals, which can transfer electricity via piezoelectricity, underground along known fault lines. When tectonic plates shift, the crystals could transfer the energy they pick up to a grid-connected storage medium for later use. But this is hardly practical, for one because earthquakes rarely happen in a predictable manner let alone in the exact spots where energy harvesters would have set up their gear. Also, fault lines tend to run deep below the Earth’s surface, so laying down a network of quartz crystals would involve mining out shafts and connecting them underground on a scale way beyond what humans have done to the present.Regarding why Japan is so reliant on nuclear power despite the tectonic risks is a matter of economics. Lacking the rich oil, coal and other energy reserves of many other nations, Japan relies on nuclear power for some 30 percent of its electricity. Prior to the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, Japan was gearing up to boost its nuclear power reserves to account for half of its electricity needs by 2030. This increased reliance on nuclear power was set to play a big part in the country’s rollback of greenhouse gas emissions.Prior to the earthquake and tsunami, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency had modeled a 54 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from 2000 levels by 2050, and a 90 percent reduction by 2100, with nuclear energy accounting for upwards of 60 percent of the country’s total energy mix. Now it looks like the country may scale back its nuclear expansion plans, which in the short term will only increase its reliance on fossil fuels which will in turn drastically limit Japan’s ambitious plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Of course, one would hope that turning away from nuclear expansion would spur the growth of alternatives such as wind power and other forms of renewable energy.CONTACTS: CrispGreen, www.crispgreen.com; U.S. Geological Survey’s Earthquake Hazards Program, www.earthquake.usgs.gov.
StumbleUpon Canada’s sports betting hearings threatened by Trudeau’s ’emergency recess’ August 24, 2020 Related Articles Tabcorp double burdened by covid and group impairment charges August 19, 2020 Submit Flutter moves to refine merger benefits against 2020 trading realities August 27, 2020 Share Share City analysts are pondering how Flutter Entertainment will sooth competition concerns across multiple markets, attached to its bold merger pursuit with digital rival The Stars Group Inc.Since the merger was propositioned on 2 October, Flutter CEO Peter Jackson and corporate governance have emphasised confidence in clearing all regulatory hurdles to deliver a £10 billion online gambling powerhouse.The stakes are high for Jackson and co, as the Flutter-Stars combination will lead US wagering partnerships with Fox Sports, Fastball Holdings and Boyd Interactive – all dependent on the deal being completed.Nevertheless, city analysts believe that Flutter governance will face tough decisions if they are to secure regulatory harmony on a Stars merger if US ambitions are to be delivered.This weekend, Canadian investment bank Canaccord Genuity issued an industry note to the Sunday Times detailing that it viewed a sale of flagship brand Paddy Power as the ‘most logical decision’ for Flutter to undertake.A Flutter-Stars combination would create an entity with a 40% share of the UK online gambling marketplace, servicing three of the UK’s top seven most popular online bookmakers in Paddy Power, Betfair and Sky Bet.In its note, Canaccord details that the above conditions will likely lead to UK CMA ‘concerns over consumer choice’ in online betting.A Paddy Power break-up would be viewed as a controversial move, as Peter Jackson had previously underlined ‘returning the bookmaker to growth’ as core remit of the executive taking leadership of the FTSE firm in 2018.Revitalising Paddy Power, Flutter has spent significant money and resources upgrading the bookmaker’s operating systems, all-round product proposition and revamping its loyalty programme wholesale.In addition, Paddy Power’s ambitions have been supported by a number of high coverage UK advertising campaigns, as Peter Jackson moves to re-establish Flutter’s legacy brand as a leading mass-market bookmaker.Elsewhere, analysts anticipate a market probe by either Australian Competition Tribunal (ACT) or the Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (ACCC) examining Flutter-Stars potential impacts on Australian sports betting.In its acquisition note, Flutter governance stated that there should be no regulatory concerns in Australia as the company would be against TAB Holdings as the market leader.Nevertheless, Flutter-Stars would control Australian online betting leader Sportsbet.com.au and BetEasy, a sportsbook brand formed by the Stars Group combining CrownBet and William Hill Australia for AUS $600 million (€480 million), which may see AUS competitors demand an ACT/ACCC watchdog review.At present, Flutter governance maintains its schedule of completing the transaction by Q2-to-Q3 2020, an ambitious target for the merger’s stakeholders.