AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter The board also recommended that shareholders vote in favour of the transaction at a special meeting of shareholders, which is due to take place next month. Under the deal, Apollo will purchase all of the outstanding shares of Great Canadian’s common stock for CAD$39.00 per share, using funds managed by affiliates. Tags: Apollo Global Management Great Canadian Gaming 13th November 2020 | By Robert Fletcher Regions: Canada The deal remains subject to a number of approvals, but has already secured the backing of the Great Canadian board of directors, which voted unanimously to support the proposal. Apollo Funds to acquire Great Canadian Gaming for CAD$3.3bn Should the acquisition go ahead as expected, Great Canadian will continue to be based in Toronto and led by a Canadian management team and with Canadian board members. Apollo said it anticipates certain Canadian institutions may also co-invest in the transaction in order to build up equity in the business upon completion of the acquisition. Private equity giant Apollo Global Management has agreed to acquire land-based operator Great Canadian Gaming Corporation in a deal worth more than CAD$3.3bn (£1.91bn/€2.13bn/US$2.51bn). Topics: Strategy M&A Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter M&A Read the full sotry on iGB North America. Email Address
Medical And Surgical Centre Limited (MASC.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Health sector has released it’s 2019 interim results for the third quarter.For more information about Medical And Surgical Centre Limited (MASC.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Medical And Surgical Centre Limited (MASC.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Medical And Surgical Centre Limited (MASC.mu) 2019 interim results for the third quarter.Company ProfileMedical And Surgical Centre Limited deals within the Healthcare and Cafeteria segments where it operates hospitals in Mauritius. The company is a subsidiary of CIEL Healthcare Limited and operates hospitals under the Fortis Clinique Darné and Wellkin Hospital names, as well as runs a one day care centre under the FCD North name. Medical And Surgical Centre Limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.
Vodacom Tanzania Limited (VODA.tz) listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange under the Technology sector has released it’s 2020 interim results for the first quarter.For more information about Vodacom Tanzania Limited (VODA.tz) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Vodacom Tanzania Limited (VODA.tz) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Vodacom Tanzania Limited (VODA.tz) 2020 interim results for the first quarter.Company ProfileVodacom Tanzania Plc is a telecommunication company in Tanzania offering products and services ranging from voicemail, data and messaging to leased lines, PABX and international connectivity and remote satellite communication. Vodacom Tanzania also offers products and services for mobile banking, hosting, data storage, disaster recovery and security solutions. Vodacom Tanzania supports Vodacom M-Pesa, a financial app used to send money using a mobile phone; and Vodacom M-Pawa which allows customers to access savings and loan accounts. The company has active roaming agreements with global operators including T-Mobile USA Inc, Vodafone Limited (UK) and Vodafone Limited (India). Vodacom Tanzania Plc is a subsidiary of Vodacom Group Limited. Vodacom Tanzania Limited is listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange
Howard Lake | 20 September 2013 | News In a speech given tomorrow (Friday 20 September) at the UK Community Foundations Conference, Sir Peter Bazalgette, Chair of Arts Council England, will highlight the vital need for the arts and culture sector to encourage philanthropic support and to better communicate the benefits of arts and culture to the general public.Sir Peter Bazalgette will say that there is major challenge to the sector to show the public how deeply embedded the arts are in their daily lives, and how vital they are to every aspect of communities across the nation.He will go on to say: “There’s no doubt the arts has a great opportunity. Although charitable giving has declined in the last five years we’re still a generous country, eighth in the list of givers worldwide. But according to the Charities Aid Foundation only around one per cent of the pot goes to the arts. So there’s something for us all to aim for, particularly the so-called ‘baby boomers’. We’re the generation in our fifties, sixties and seventies. We’ve benefitted from four decades of house price inflation; we were the last to enjoy final salary pensions or uncapped personal pension contributions.” Advertisement Arts Council England announces new annual philanthropy conference to encourage culture of giving He will announce plans for an annual initiative to bring together the legal and accountancy professions with charity and investment advisers, business CSR leaders and the CEO’s of Community Foundations to discuss the challenges around securing increased philanthropic and corporate giving.Key points include:Research from The Charities Aid Foundation shows that more than £9 billion was given to charity in 2011-2012. A recent YouGov poll showed that only 9% of people thought that public arts funding went to charitable organisations yet nearly all Arts Council England funding is given to organisations with charitable status. The average donor is less inclined to give to the arts and more likely to give to education, homelessness and older people; issues that arts organisations routinely work to tackle in communities. Partnerships with organisations such as the UK Communities Foundation will support this need, as will better communication around the tax system or initiatives such as the Cultural Gift Scheme. Corporate giving has not risen to pre-recession levels. Local businesses are supporters-in-waiting- if the sector can find a way to address their priorities. Arts Council England is taking the lead in helping arts organisations to find ways of approaching a mixed funding model. In particular the Catalyst programme, including the Catalyst Endowment Fund, which match funds private money raised by organisations and last year helped towards a target of £106 million in donations. The Arts Council also recognises the need to improve the fundraising skills of our workforce; we are committing £30 million to help 173 organisations strengthen this capacity and have invested £2 million in a new fellowship in fundraising at Leeds University. A full copy of the embargoed speech will be available from the Arts Council England press office.-ends-Notes to Editors Arts Council England champions, develops and invests in artistic and cultural experiences that enrich people’s lives. We support a range of activities across the arts, museums and libraries – from theatre to digital art, reading to dance, music to literature, and crafts to collections. Great art and culture inspires us, brings us together and teaches us about ourselves and the world around us. In short, it makes life better. Between 2010 and 2015, we will invest £1.9 billion of public money from government and an estimated £1.1 billion from the National Lottery to help create these experiences for as many people as possible across the country.www.artscouncil.org.uk AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis 9 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.
Haitian and Dominican organizations in New York held a rally at noon and later a vigil at the Consulate of the Dominican Republic on Feb. 26 to protest against the lynching of a Haitian man in the Dominican Republic earlier in February. The lynching of Henry Claude-Jean “Tulile” on Feb. 4 followed a night when a Haitian flag was burned in a park in his town of Santiago, Dominican Republic. There have been many protests of anti-Haitian legislation that revoked citizen rights of Haitians who had resided for a long time in the Dominican Republic.The Haitian American Lawyers Association of New York and the organization “We Are All Dominican” — a group of university students, mostly from John Jay College, and young community members who support the rights of Haitian-origin people living inside the Dominican Republic — sponsored and came to the Feb. 26 actions.In a statement explaining its goals, the Dominican group wrote that they oppose the “Dominican Constitutional Court’s decision to strip tens of thousands, and possibly hundreds of thousands, of Dominicans of Haitian descent of their nationality, violating fundamental human rights.”HALANY says on its website that it was “founded to promote and encourage participation by Haitian Americans and other ethnic minorities in the judicial and legal system.” It also opposes the Dominican court’s decision for putting the security of about 200,000 people at risk.In an earlier statement, We Are All Dominican wrote that they “are in solidarity with all migrants in the Dominican Republic and denounce any form of violence regardless of their legal status. At the same time we want to ensure that Dominicans of Haitian descent are legally recognized as Dominican nationals and not migrants, as the DR proposes to do.” They also advocate “an inclusive Dominican national identity that recognizes and celebrates our diversity.”Also in response to the lynching of Henry Claude-Jean, Dominican citizens living abroad wrote a letter to Dominican Republic President Danilo Medina expressing their concern and making public their “condemnation of the dangerous hate campaign unleashed in our country,” including death threats against journalists who advocate for the rights of those whose citizenship rights are threatened. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this
Related documents rsf2014roundup.pdfPDF – 6.85 MB Reporters Without Borders and its advertising agency BETC are back in the public eye again at this troubled time for freedom of information, with journalists being murdered, jailed or censored.Coinciding with the release of its 2014 round-up of abuses against journalists, Reporters Without Borders is launching a campaign to mobilise support for media freedom and independence and to appeal to public generosity.BETC has produced a film based on a true story that shows a shipping container. It is a rather special container because, instead of transporting merchandize, it has been used as a prison cell for a journalist in the Eritrean desert for the past 12 years.Directed by One More, the film will be premiered today in Paris as part of a special event on the Champ de Mars (Place Jacques-Rueff), where Reporters Without Borders has installed a container in front of the Eiffel Tower. RSF_en Campaigns December 16, 2014 – Updated on March 4, 2016 This is not a container, it’s a prison Organisation Help by sharing this information
Organisation RSF_en Help by sharing this information Three jailed reporters charged with “undermining national security” News to go further RSF’s 2020 Round-up: 50 journalists killed, two-thirds in countries “at peace” December 28, 2020 Find out more Iraq : Wave of arrests of journalists covering protests in Iraqi Kurdistan News Reporters Without Borders today condemned the murder of Koussai Kahdban, an Iraqi journalist with local radio station Al-Bilad, who was shot by gunmen on 22 April in Baghdad. His death brought the number of journalists and media assistants killed in Iraq since the start of the war in March 2003 to 88, of whom 12 have been killed since the beginning of 2006. “This horrible deed once again serves to remind us that Iraq is the world’s most dangerous country for journalists,” the press freedom organisation said. Reporters Without Borders today condemned the murder of Koussai Kahdban, an Iraqi journalist with local radio station Al-Bilad, who was shot by gunmen on 22 April in Baghdad. His death brought the number of journalists and media assistants killed in Iraq since the start of the war in March 2003 to 88, of whom 12 have been killed since the beginning of 2006.“This horrible deed once again serves to remind us that Iraq is the world’s most dangerous country for journalists,” the press freedom organisation said. “Journalists are also the target of abductions. Reem Zeid, Marwan Khazaal and Salah Jali al-Gharrawi are all still being held hostage. We call on the new prime minister, Jawad Al-Maliki, to do every necessary to ensure that journalists get better protection and that their murderers are found and punished.”Reporters Without Borders added: “We share the grief of Koussai Kahdban’s family and employers and we extend our full sympathy to them.”A total of 40 journalists and media assistants have been kidnapped since the start of the war. Five of them (four Iraqis and Enzo Baldoni of Italy) were killed by their abductors. Twenty-six of these kidnappings took place in or near Baghdad. Follow the news on Iraq IraqMiddle East – North Africa Receive email alerts News February 15, 2021 Find out more April 24, 2006 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Radio reporter’s murder brings total number of journalists killed since 2003 to 88 News IraqMiddle East – North Africa December 16, 2020 Find out more
News Respect judicial independence in cases of two leading journalists in Serbia and Montenegro, RSF says June 8, 2021 Find out more Receive email alerts to go further Help by sharing this information Reporters Without Borders today condemned the one-year suspended prison sentence for libel imposed on former Podrinski Telegraf editor Milan Milinkovic in the western city of Sabac on 10 February, pointing out that both the United Nations and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) oppose the application of prison sentences for press offences.”Worse still, the Serbian government has just published a draft new criminal code that would make attacks on a person’s honour and reputation punishable by a year in prison, although justice minister Zoran Stojkovic gave OSCE representative undertakings in November 2004 to decriminalize press offences,” the press freedom organization said.The one-year suspended sentence was handed down by municipal court judge Ivica Lazarevic in response to a libel action brought by Nebojsa Jovanovic, the owner of Medikom (a company that distributes Kodak products in Serbia), over a March 2002 article about Medikom’s links with former President Slobodan Milosevic’s Socialist Party of Serbia and with the Yugoslav Left Party of Milosevic’s wife, Mirjana Markovic.The judge ruled that the word “relationship” was “inappropriate” in the context of the article and that Milinkovic should have used the term “cooperation.” Milinkovic was also fined 100 euros and ordered to pay 400 euros in court costs. His lawyer, Branislav Sekulovic, said he would appeal.The draft law envisaging prison sentences for journalists in violation of the justice minister’s pledge to the OSCE was published on 19 February. In cases in which journalists reveal information about a person’s private life that is liable to affect their honour and reputation, they can be given a one-year suspended sentence. The new draft criminal code also envisages suspended prison sentences of up to six months for libel. June 7, 2021 Find out more Europe – Central Asia February 23, 2005 – Updated on January 20, 2016 One-year suspended prison sentence for journalist in libel case Organisation News News June 4, 2021 Find out more News Europe – Central Asia Reporters Without Borders condemns the one-year suspended prison sentence and fine of 100 euros imposed onMilan Milinkovic, the former editor of the weekly Podrinski Telegraf, for libel. Although the Serbiangovernment plans to maintain prison sentences for press offences in a newly-unveiled criminal code, this iscontrary to international standards, the organization points out. Follow the news on Europe – Central Asia RSF calls for a fully transparent investigation after mine kills two journalists in Azerbaijan “We’ll hold Ilham Aliyev personally responsible if anything happens to this blogger in France” RSF says RSF_en
ColumnsUnderstanding Femicide Seoula Vas,Avani Pathak & Dev Sareen18 Aug 2020 12:12 AMShare This – xThe World Health Organization defines ‘Femicide’ as the intentional murder of women solely for the reason that they are women. ‘Femicide’ is a hate crime term denoting the gender- based murder of a woman or a girl by a man [i] or in the context of a system made by males for the benefit of males in society. It need not be concentrated Genocide all at once but systematically…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe World Health Organization defines ‘Femicide’ as the intentional murder of women solely for the reason that they are women. ‘Femicide’ is a hate crime term denoting the gender- based murder of a woman or a girl by a man [i] or in the context of a system made by males for the benefit of males in society. It need not be concentrated Genocide all at once but systematically perpetuated over generations. Though perpetrated against women for centuries, this term ‘Femicide’ was coined only in 1976 by Diana Russell during the First International Tribunal on Crimes against Women in Brussels who defined it as the “misogynistic killing of women by men, motivated by hatred, contempt, pleasure or a sense of ownership of women, thus representing overall oppression of women”[ii], The spectrum of Femicide ranges from Female Foeticide, Female Infanticide, Genital mutilation related Femicide, Dishonour killings, Dowry deaths, Abetment to suicide, Intimate Partner killings, Murder with gang rape, Psychopathic serial rapes and killings, to killing by Superstition or witchcraft. It is not always necessary that Femicide be committed by male members only; in some episodes, female members may also be involved in a limited capacity or even as co-conspirators, abettors and accomplices in the commission of the crime (with the purpose of upholding the very system by which they are fatally disadvantaged). This research article focuses on the recent trends of Femicide across the spectrum incorporating global and Indian trends and also puts forth the remedial measures that can be adopted to prevent this ghastly crime of Femicide. Causes, Objectives and Triggers of Femicide Femicide encompasses all of the hegemonic masculine-social methods used to destroy females’ rights, abilities, potentials and power to live safely. It is a form of abuse, threat, invasion and assault that degrades and makes women second-class citizens; the chief objective being, imbuing of continuous fear, frustration, isolation, exclusion and harm to females’ ability to control their personal intimate lives'[iii]. Femicide can be well understood as a sub-set of Patriarchy, made drastic by the establishing of physical dominance and gender dominance fuelled by the notion that women are worthless (The Feminist Approach of Femicide by Cameron and Frazer, 1987). As stated by Kantola, Orloff and Walby in their research studies, “The fundamental tenet of patriarchy is power; where power is distributed unequally between men and women, violence is the tool men use to keep women under their control.” According to a research conducted by Shalhoub-Kevorian and Daher-Nashif, Femicide is strengthened by the process of “culturalization” where the males plan the patriarchy, implement it and at the same time turn a blind eye towards women’s needs and actively silence the abuse they face.[iv] This ignorance has been effectuated from centuries resulting in this abominable condition of women in this world. The fact of high rate of women being killed by Intimate-partner violence in a family setting and high rate of men not killed in family settings forces researchers and readers to steer towards a sociological approach of looking at Femicide[v] and provide sociological background to the Femicide without which, the inquiry is incomplete. Furthermore, it is very pertinent to include the findings of Camille Paglia – a Feminist academician that, “What feminism calls patriarchy is simply a civilization, an abstract system designed by men but augmented and now co-owned by women” which clearly depicts the status quo where even the women abet to such killing while submerged under the institution of Patriarchy. The prevalence of Femicide has resulted in a trans-generational inheritance of such femicide as the whole society is stuck in fear. This trepidation is well illustrated by Dr. Hans Selye through his theory termed General Adaptation Syndrome or the theory of stress should we regard society as a living organism. In this theory, the organism goes through three stages of stress viz., Alarm (reaction), Resistance, and Exhaustion (hopelessness). A very significant case in point is that of the Democratic Republic of Congo where the people constantly fear violence against their daughters and crimes committed against them so much that they are facing chronic distress and are not able to recover their homeostasis. Femicide in these regions directly jolt the psyche of the society and thence, proves minacious and reflects a sense of disquietude in the society. In order to identify those Homicides that would fall under the appropriate and accepted definition of Femicide, the following test and markers may be applied to aid in categorizing such killings. Test of Femicide: Female victim: eliminated by reason of her gender, exclusively due to the conceptions attached to the feminine gender in society.Central Objective: to preserve male privilege in society.No male equivalence.Trace root cause to Patriarchal system and male gender identity. General markers of Femicide: Intention of killer(s) to restore tradition or restitution of social convention in favour of male entitlement.Mainly perpetrated by men.Generally preceded by Violence/ beating, Stalking. Female Foeticide and Infanticide Foeticide means the destruction of a foetus at any time prior to birth. ‘Infanticide’ means the unlawful destruction of a newly born child and is regarded as homicide in law.[vi] One of the desolate illustrations of Foeticide comes from ‘Disappearing Daughters: The Tragedy of Female Foeticide’, a Book by Gita Aravamudan, where the author clearly describes a chilling modern technique of femicide by infanticide where the family members wrap the new born baby in a wet towel, inducing pneumonia and at the same time the medicines prescribed by the doctor are abandoned and the baby dies. There is statistical data backing up this illustration as well. According to a 2005 study reported in The Lancet, girls in central India had a five times higher mortality rate (per 1000 live births) from pneumonia than did boys in south India and four times higher mortality rate from diarrhoea diseases than did boys in west India.[vii]. While it may well appear that there is regional separation in respect of these inferences, what comes glaring out is the nevertheless higher mortality of female babies where their male counterparts seem to be surviving such disease across regions. UNICEF provides yet another haunting image of the sex ratio and female infanticide. It states- “India is the only large country where more girls die than boys, with the inverse sex ratio at birth being 900 girls born for every 1000 boys. Globally 7 per cent more boys die under the age of 5 compared to girls but in India, 11 per cent more girls die under the age of 5″[viii]. For a long time, this dismaying sex ratio was considered to be a product of illiteracy and area distinction but the Census 2011 depicts a completely different portrait. It shows that the sex ratio in the 0-15 age group is 920 in rural areas compared to just 900 in urban areas for the age group 14-18 years, the difference between the boys’ and girls’ populations adds up to a whopping 77 lakh. Hence, female foeticide and infanticide is not only present in rural areas but also rampant in urban areas, breaking the stereotype and proving that it is not the result of illiteracy but of mental abrasion. Furthermore, another disheartening affair is exhibited by the report published by The Telegraph-UK in 2012 titled- “India ‘most dangerous’ place in the world to be born a girl,” stating that in India females are twice likely to die before reaching the age of 5 years.[ix] A Supreme Court bench of justices Dipak Misra and Abhay Manohar Sapre in January 2015 took cognizance of this situation stating- “Decline in sex-ratio is a disturbing problem and the same is likely to affect the civilisation in entirety. Women are the basic pillars of human race in any society”. The court has also reprimanded the States for their lackadaisical approach in curbing female infanticide and also issued directions for effective implementation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994. Furthermore, the Hon’ble Court observed; All the States and the Union Territories in India shall maintain a centralized database of Civil Registration records from all registration units so that information can be made available from the website regarding the number of boys and girls being born.The information that shall be displayed on the website shall contain the birth information for each District, Municipality, Corporation or Gram Panchayat so that a visual comparison of boys and girls born can be immediately seen.The statutory authorities if not constituted as envisaged under the Act shall be constituted forthwith and the competent authorities shall take steps for the reconstitution of the statutory bodies so that they can become immediately functional after expiry of the term. That apart, they shall meet regularly so that the provisions of the Act can be implemented in reality and the effectiveness of the legislation is felt and realized in the society.The provisions contained in Sections 22 and 23 *of the Act relating to Offences and Penalties shall be strictly adhered to. The Courts which deal with the complaints under the Act shall be fast tracked and the concerned High Courts shall issue appropriate directions in that regard.The judicial officers who are to deal with these cases under the Act shall be periodically imparted training in the Judicial Academies or Training Institutes.The Director of Prosecution shall take stock of things with regard to the lodging of prosecution so that the purpose of the Act is served.The Courts that deal with the complaints under the Act shall deal with the matters in promptitude and submit the quarterly report to the High Courts through the concerned Sessions and District Judge.The learned Chief Justices of each of the High Courts in the country are requested to constitute a Committee of three Judges that can periodically oversee the progress of the cases.The awareness campaigns with regard to the provisions of the Act as well as the social awareness shall be undertaken as per the direction No 9.8 in the order dated March 4, 2013 passed in Voluntary Health Association of Punjab.The State Legal Services Authorities shall give emphasis on this campaign during the spread of legal aid and involve the para-legal volunteers.The Union of India and the States shall see to it that appropriate directions are issued to the authorities of All India Radio and Doordarshan functioning in various States to give wide publicity pertaining to the saving of the girl child and the grave dangers the society shall face because of female foeticide. On a scientific note, it is the ‘x’ chromosome that carries all the necessary genetic information for survival and since boys get a set of ‘x’ & ‘y’ chromosomes while girls get a set of 2’x’ chromosomes, the female babies are in fact better equipped to survive famine like conditions, developmental disabilities and disease. Dr. Sharon Moalem – physician and geneticist in his book titled ‘The Better Half: An Argument for the Genetic Superiority of Women’ makes a case that women’s more robust immune systems and longer lives are a result of their genetic advantage Therefore, the grim picture of India’s sex ratio is not mere evidence of, but proof that there is deliberate elimination of females in the population. Intimate Partner Killings Intimate Partner killings are explicated as “the killing of women by male intimate partners,”and subsequently modified by Myrna Dawson and Rosemary Gartner to include “current or former legal spouses, common-law partners or boyfriends.” Campbell and Runyan adapted the term intimate-partner femicide to clarify the nature of the victim-perpetrator relationship. The research around this subject began with the proposition that there is a causation or correlation connecting the socio-economic relationship between the victim and perpetrator and the crime that takes shape and, that there are identifiable ‘factors within ecological settings which may be associated with the killing of women by male intimate partners’ (Stout, 1992 a: 29). This manner of murder has been romanticised in mainstream society as a ‘crime of passion’ with the theme that the perpetrator is plagued by his very human shortcomings or succumbing to the ‘heat of the moment’; a defence at time adopted with the expectation of an acquittal. The society may, to a certain degree, be generous with bestowing empathy on the perpetrator and treat him on par as the victim for himself being hurt by the loss of his ‘loved one’/ partner. There is also a general assumption that these instances are isolated and have no common thread, worthy of study, to relate them thereby categorizing such crimes as a matter of luck and chance and not something to that extent, preventable. The American Medical Association stated that, “one-third of all women’s injuries coming into our emergency rooms are no accident. Most are the result of acts of violence. And frequently they occur over and over until the woman is killed.” Intimate Partner Killings remain one of the foremost underreported offences committed against women. The main cause for of this is the offence is not visible, as violence is widely accepted as a legitimate part of family life by both women and men. Global Trends in Intimate Partner Killings The United Nations office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has revealed that in many countries, intimate partner and/or family-related homicide is the major cause of female homicides. Women killed by intimate partners or family members account for 58 per cent of all female homicide victims reported globally.According to Stöckl et al. (2013), intimate partners commit at least 41 percent of all female homicides and 6 percent of male homicides. The scourge of Femicide is not unknown to Europe with France reporting 100 to 150 cases every year. A 2017 report from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) shows that the number of women and girls killed by an intimate partner or a family member every year (43,600) is four times higher than the total number of people killed by violent extremist acts (11,133). In Latin America the problem is particularly tense with cities like El Salvador, countries like Honduras, Bolivia, Colombia reporting very high rates of Femicide – 2 a day in Colombia, 1 every 16 hours in Honduras. Another country where high instance of Femicide is noted is Mexico with numbers breaching the 100 mark per year and where 92% of the assailants are known to the victim. In South Africa, 1 Femicide murder occurs every 4 hours. Alcohol and drug use are potential risk factors for intimate partner killing and attempted femicide. As discussed above, Femicide usually results from violent behaviour of men for years before it culminates in the murder of the woman or girl. It is not uncommon that often violent tendencies are fuelled by substance abuse. However, the relationship between alcohol and intimate partner violence has been disputed in the literature. In several descriptive studies of battered women, the percentage of batterers abusing alcohol ranges from 25% to 85% (Campbell, 1992; Moracco et al., 1998; National Institute of Justice, 1997). Although Indian criminal law is not technically speaking, concerned with motive at all, ‘intimate partner killing’ is not identified as a manner of death in India and receives no specific attention as a phenomenon. In Indian criminal law, there is only Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code that punishes cruelty at the hands of the husband and/or his family/relatives and should such cruelty and intentional violence prove fatal for the woman in question, then the death would be prosecuted as ‘murder’. Dowry Deaths “The practice of dowry is a great slur and curse on our culture, democracy and land. It is unbelievable how often in our culture these tragic and condemnable instances of death by dowry occur” remarked judges in the landmark case of Sanjay Kumar Jain v. State emphasizing the need to end Dowry Deaths. Despite the fact that the act of giving and taking of the dowry was prohibited as early as 1961, the provision of 304-B of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) pertaining to dowry death was introduced in the IPC far later after much speculation and analysis by the 91st Law Commission Report, 1983 titled- “Dowry Death and Law Reform.” ‘Dowry’ is defined in the Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961 as “any property or valuable security given or agreed to be given either directly or indirectly by one party to a marriage to the other party to the marriage; or by parents of either party to a marriage or by any other person to either party to the marriage or to any other person, at or before or after the marriage.” Under the said Act, the giving or taking of dowry is punishable by 5 years’ imprisonment along with fine in the amount of the value of the dowry and the demand for dowry is made punishable by imprisonment of not less than 6 months and up to 2 years ordinarily accompanied by penalty in terms of fine. Despite these statutory safeguards, demand and harassment for dowry is rampant in India and pursued unhindered and unabashed in rural and urban areas, in and wealthy and middle to low income families. The notion of entitlement, needless to mention is what further entitles the husband and husband’s family of such victim to kill her so that a more suitable wife who can bring satisfactory dowry can be next wed to the man. Women join these heinous crimes to gain status among the men who are at the top of the social ladder in this reading. The ingredients for establishing offence of dowry death are- a) the death of the woman occurs by burns (bride burning) or bodily injury or otherwise than under normal circumstances, b) death occurs within 7 years of marriage, c) before death she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by husband or any relative of husband, d) such harassment or cruelty should pertain to the demand of dowry.Interestingly, while murder in India is sentenced with life imprisonment and/or death, dowry deaths have been afforded incoherent and discriminatory treatment as if it were not full-fledged murder because in comparison, the sentence is of minimum 7 years’ imprisonment and up to death in some cases. It appears that the will of the patriarchal people is etched into the statute as well which has determined that female life lost by intentional killing due to cultural bias is, for reasons best known to the law makers, not as precious and therefore not as punishable as any other murder under any other murderous intentions. It goes to show that female lives are undervalued. One of the major impediments in the data available on the dowry deaths earlier was the securing of evidence to prove dowry deaths. Therefore, a specific provision (113-B) relating to presumption of dowry death on husband and relatives was added to the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 for proof of certain essentials. One of the major points of vexation is the low conviction rate in these cases. This can be illustrated by the conviction rates of the year 2016 where there were 10,000 cases registered but the conviction rate stood 15.3% which is very low for such a gruesome offence. This, in spite of being armed with presumption in law aiding the prosecution side and wherefore burden of proof is on the accused. It is relevant to note that while all homicides in India have been on the decline since the early 1970s till date, demonstrating a noticeably downward slope, as indicated by available statistics, dowry deaths – the foremost form of Femicide practiced in India, has witnessed no such proportionate decline and continued to represent a stable trend over the period 1999 to 2016. This is demonstrated vide the graphs and charts hereto. It should be pointed out that dowry murders are concentrated in particular states in India, with the highest incidences in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. A study reported in The Lancet made the revelation that in one year at least a staggering 106,000 women were killed by fires inside their homes in India. These statistics point to the rate of one woman being burned to death every five minutes (Ellsberg et al. 2008). The dowry system is a result of a vicious cycle of patriarchy, avarice, dominance of the institution of marriage over women and inequality. Dishonour Killings Honour killing, or rather ‘Dishonour killing’ is defined as “a Death that is ‘awarded’ to a woman of the family for marrying against the parent’s wishes, having extramarital and premarital relationships, marrying within the same ‘Gotra’ or outside one’s caste or marrying a cousin from a different caste”. Honour killings take many forms, including: conspired and/or premeditated murder; stoning (public justice); women and young girls being forced to commit suicide; burning (a form of perceived ‘purification’) and women being disfigured by acid burns, leading to death. The Global trend highlighting Dishonour killings is depicted by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) which estimates that 5,000 women are murdered by family members across the globe each year in Dishonour Killings. These are mostly the Middle East countries or the countries associated with Islam. From the available data records, India has recorded an 800 percent rise in the Dishonour Killings rising from 28 in 2014 to 251 in the year 2015. Furthermore, according to a poll done by the BBC’s Asian Network, 1 in 10 of the 500 Hindus, Sikhs, Christians and Muslims surveyed said they would condone any murder of someone who threatened their family’s honour. As far as India is concerned, “Honour killings” are mostly reported from the States of Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The region of Bhagalpur in Bihar is also one of the known places for “Honour killings”. Some incidents are even reported from Delhi and Tamil Nadu. One of the main impediments identified and mentioned by the Law Commission through its 242nd report was that- “villagers give more importance to judgments passed by this self-appointed court than the judgments passed by the local legal court, often referred to as “Legal Panchayat”. Underlining the gravity of such offence, the Apex court in May 2011 through the judgement of Bhagwan Dass v. State of Delhideemed Dishonour Killings in the “rarest of rare” category of crimes that deserve the death penalty. It is to be noted that in India, the criminal justice system allows for a sentence of either life imprisonment or death in the offence of murder wherefore, only those cases wherein the manner in which murder was committed or wherein the motive is particularly cruel, bizarre and rare, shall be liable for the death penalty. The 242nd Law Commission Report also recommended a Bill entitled “The Prohibition of Unlawful Assembly (Interference with the Freedom of Matrimonial Alliances) Bill, 2011 which prohibited a person or any group of persons from gathering, assembling or congregating at any time with the view or intention of condemning any marriage, not prohibited by Law and also sought to declare Khap Panchayats illegal and introduce a punishment for such conductbut the Bill failed to get majority in the Parliament and could not be passed and the Khap Panchayats still harass and victimizes girls and their families through arbitrary death sentences in cases where they marry outside their castes. It is found that also men and boys suffer condemnation at the hands of this brand of mob justice for similar reasons. Men, just like women, are also known to be ‘lynched’ in like manner especially in rural areas of India. However, while the motive for the Dishonour killing of both genders may be identical in such cases, the “sentences” formally pronounced by the Khap Panchayats as aforementioned and the actual carrying out of the “sentence” is heavily disproportionate, to the detriment of women. This is mainly because there exists the notion of ‘modesty’ assigned to women and girls, the construct of societal and familial ‘honour’ attached to women and girls and, the concept of ‘purity’ and ‘impurity’ (in sexual and physiological terms) of the female body. It is these set of beliefs that are responsible for the want of Dishonour Killings in India and Asia. Femicide by Superstitions/ Witchcraft One of the bizarre forms that Femicide engulfs in it is the killing of women from superstitions. The killing of women accused of sorcery/witchcraft is reported as a significant phenomenon in countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific Islands. The women often become scapegoats under the accusations of indulging in witchcraft or sorcery put up by men. This pattern of violations includes violent murder, physical mutilation, displacement/banishment, kidnapping and disappearance, or subjecting women to exorcism ceremonies involving public beatings and/or abuses by shamans or village elders. In a study conducted in Zimbabwe, it was found that of the 42 cases of femicide involving women older than 50, most of the women had in fact been accused of witchcraft by male relatives prior to the killings. In Papua New Guinea, an estimated 500 cases involving the torture and murder of women accused of practicing sorcery and/or witchcraft have been reported. Here, suspected witches have been thrown from cliffs, tortured, dragged behind cars, burned, or buried alive. The response of the authorities also shows a slackened approach. In Zambia, for instance, the average sentence was one to two years for charges of killing a woman accused of witchcraft. In India, 73 Witch-hunt deaths were recorded in 2017 as per NCRB data. This category of entirely avoidable crimes is seen predominantly as a rural affair and therefore, does not enjoy the limelight of the media. These crimes are also incidences taking place districts apart and therefore, the dots remain unconnected in investigations and thus do not as such find a place in the web of Femicide. Although, the fact that it forms a head of crime under NCRB records points to the necessary logical conclusion that in fact this form of Femicide deserves attention, study, awareness and eradication. Genital mutilation related Femicide Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a pervasive destructive operation, during which the female genitalia are partly or entirely removed and/or injured for non-medical reasons. Most often, the mutilation is performed before puberty, typically on young girls between infancy and the age of fifteen. The unhygienic operations and the infections from the wounds can lead to death of innocent girls. According to the UNFPA, infant mortality rates are higher in countries where FGM is practiced – a noteworthy correlation. Furthermore, “death rates among babies during and immediately after birth are also higher for those born to mothers who have undergone FGM”. FGM is prevalent in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, especially Somalia, Egypt and neighbouring countries as well as among immigrants in Australia, Europe and the United States. A 2018 Global Perception Poll carried out by Thomson Reuters Foundation that surveyed 558 experts on women’s issues, found India the most dangerous country for women, even ahead of war-torn Afghanistan (2nd), Syria (3rd) as well as Somalia, a country that ranks significantly lower on human development indices due to, among other things, cultural and religious practices including Female Genital Mutilation, child marriage, physical abuse and female infanticide/foeticide. FGM is practised in India’s two million-strong Bohra community, a Shia Muslim sub-sect. Young girls aged six and seven are regularly being cut in India by untrained midwives and the procedure can prove fatal due to excessive bleeding, sepsis, shock or other complications. Preliminary findings show that 80% of 400 respondents of a Petition to end the cruel and gruesome practice, were survivors who have been mutilated in this manner. While the practice is well-documented the world over, in India, the Ministry of Women and Child Development reported in December 2017 that there is no official data or study which supports the existence of FGM in India. The secrecy comes wrapped in deceit and betrayal. In 2018, a study published by ‘WeSpeakOut’ – a survivor-led movement, revealed that 75% of daughters (aged seven years and above) of all respondents in the sample, from the Bohra community, were subjected to FGM. This so called traditional practice whose reasons cannot be ascertained in any determinate manner, attempts to control women’s sexuality and their experience of sexual pleasure, and is rooted in patriarchal ideas about the purity and modesty of women. It perpetuates harmful gender norms and some communities believe it is required for a girl’s “proper” upbringing, marriage or to maintain the family’s honour. FGM is a recognised crime as per Indian law as it stands; a cognisable offence covered under Sections 320 read with 326 of the IPC dealing with Voluntarily causing Grievous Hurt by Dangerous Weapons or means which carrying a maximum punishment of life imprisonment. Yet, neither are cases of FGM frequent to report nor any arrests and convictions made in respect thereof which is logically unsustainable. Murder accompanied with Gang/Rape: Most forms of violence on women and girls take a “gang” form. Almost all dowry murders and ‘witch’ hunts are ‘gang’ style lynching. Most reported rapes by strangers are gang-rapes. The killing of infant girls and forced abortions of female foetuses are also almost always due to collective family pressure on women bearing children. This ‘gang’ factor is a critical indicator that this genocidal violence stems from a collective cultural identity. (Criminal conspiracy and common intention). A glimpse into the social psychology of the rapist will reveal that often the underlying motive is to reduce the victim to a mere object for disposal of carnal urges. This treatment meted out to women at the hands of rapists is an extension of the notion that women’s lives and bodies can be devalued at the instance of male members of the society. In 2013, the criminal law in India underwent amendments whereby was introduced the death penalty, for rape that amounts to death of the victim or that leaves the victim in a vegetative state. In 2017, India recorded 227 rape cases that ended up fatal of which among the Gangrapes, 33% were convicted. Even more recently, in 2020, four accused of Gangrape and murder case were killed in an extra judicial manner by way of police encounter much before trial. This paints the picture that convictions are hard to secure in a criminal trial of such offences as the prosecution in extremely strained and investigation is not conducted with the highest degree of commitment. Suggested Measures It is imaginable how many more females would be added in the population had they not been eliminated or discarded by the various forms of Femicide. It is imaginable that larger numbers of females in the population would result in better safety for them as there would be a larger group interested in protecting themselves. It is imaginable that exploitation would be low because resources would be forced to be bent to satisfy the requirements of the group that is sizeable in number. In this manner, by the removal of safety checks in numbers, Femicide begets Femicide. If it is emphatically imperative to end the prejudicial slaughter of the female population, then it must mean that measures commensurate to the seriousness of the crisis be engaged in order to wipe out this repugnant and pernicious practice. The following measures ought to be employed in order to flush the population with female members: Femicides need to be addressed in the specific contexts in which they occur, and not as isolated incidents.Attention needs to be paid to socio-political and economic dynamics, as well as overall patterns of gender-based violence, and how they affect the nature of Femicide in a particular community, country, or region. In this regard, issues such as conflict and post-conflict related violence against women, trafficking, so-called honour crimes or dowry related deaths, as well as prevailing norms around intimate-partner violence, need to be taken into account.An effective surveillance system should be implemented to record statistics on the deaths of married women. This move will enable us to have data in order to study the pattern and provide context.Organizations in other countries should also be appointed to issue quarterly reports on the subject of Femicide. These reports should highlight the magnitude of the problem, manner of death, geographical distribution, age/education/occupation wise distribution, ethnic/caste/religion wise distribution, and the cost to families (both direct and indirect) of mortality and morbidity. This report can be utilized for advocacy at State, regional, and National levels, targeting policy-makers. Existing laws should be properly enforced, and new, stricter legislation passed to truly abolish dowry-related crimes by detecting innuendos and euphemisms operating in society in protecting the institution of dowry. Voluntary associations should be established to decrease the importance of dowries in general.In 2012, alarmed by the fact that Femicide was increasing all over the world and remained unpunished, ACUNS, the Academic Council of the United Nations System, organized the first Symposium on Femicide in Vienna. The goal of this seminar was to urge member states to undertake institutional initiatives to improve femicide prevention and provision of legal protection for violence survivors. In keeping with its broad aims, ACUNS describes Femicide as a wide-ranging phenomenon comprising murder, as well as torture, honour killing, dowry-related killing, infanticide and gender-based pre-natal selection (foeticide), genital mutilation and human trafficking. The need of the hour is to organize much more seminars in like nature to increase the reach and formulate a holistic action plan for combating Femicide.One of the ways to eradicate this menacing crime is for social workers, criminology experts and law makers to revisit the theory of the ‘Triangle of violence’ proposed by Galtung (1990), with its three interconnected fields – direct violence, structural violence and cultural violence – which is linked with his model of four basic needs – survival, physical well-being, liberty and, identity. He has not restricted his explanation but has extended it to highlight that the origin of the crime is understood by knowing that there are types of violence behind it. He proposed reconstruction, reconciliation, resolution targeting on psychological, cultural and structural dimension of Femicide. Galtung’s approach has been very useful to the application of Stout’s theory on Femicide supra.A new section in IPC be added defining ‘Femicide’ as a form of “aggravated Homicide” and prescribing life imprisonment up till the natural life of the convict or death. Presumption of Femicide (or intentional murder) in deaths of 0-6 year-old female children be introduced as a fresh section in the IPC.Mandatory Post-mortem should be conducted for all the female homicides of victims between 6 to 40 years.Stalking should be made a non-bailable offence under IPC as it is often a precursor to violent acts and ultimately in some cases, the carrying out of Femicide type of murder.Remove the assaulter or offender from the home/ vicinity instead of displacing the victim in protection homes. The sense of power has to be retained by the victim.Malnutrition caused to children should be a cognizable, non-bailable offence against parents/ custodians by introducing a section in IPC to that effect.Obtaining a Restraining Order against stalker and assaulter should be made easy at the police station level itself by extending powers to the police under the Police Act. A proviso should be added in IPC sections dealing with Assault and use of Criminal Force (not including outraging modesty) that it shall be made non-bailable if against woman.Police Reforms are also long pending as there is tremendous stress on police resources and this results in unprofessional and mediocre investigation. The local and rural police is starved for brainy and talented individuals who would be able to carry on investigation with intelligence and therefore, there need to be two arms of police – one that can pursue criminals, arrest and take cognizance of cases and the other – a novel separate arm of police or detectives should be established (like CID) for all crimes and not only to deal with special or complicated cases. This separate order of police should be tasked with the work of investigation i.e., effectively gather evidence and solve cases in a scientific and logical manner and for preparation for trial. To give effect to the efforts of the various studies and research in this direction, it is imperative to consolidate precedents. In conclusion, it will benefit to refer to the work of Indian activist Rita Banerji that claims that “more than 50 million women have been systematically exterminated from India’s population in three generations”. This ‘extermination’ is a result of, among other things, female Foeticide and infanticide, dowry murders and honour killings. It is curious to learn that men in India are murdered under the motives of disputes, rivalry, etc. Thus it is indicated that while women are being killed as per discrimination, “Androcide” starkly, is inflicted on men and boys (greater in number than female fatalities in the nature of Femicide) on account of their position of advantage in society. It would not be unfounded to suggest that it is partially in the interest of the preservation of the life of men itself that a portion of their power be given up to balance the equation. Society acts as the agency of men to further their agenda of dominance of resources, privilege and entitlement; the propagation and preservation thereof. The same can only be upheld at the expense of women. Given that there is an implied admission on the part of the same society to operate on the high ideals of equality and respect for all and that society intends not to burgeon the aforementioned goal of patriarchy, nothing prevents society through its fair minded members and personas of ordinary conscience to disband the old order, re-purpose society to reject such employment at the behest of the principal and follow suit in service of all the higher ideals of its members so as to repopulate the nation with a healthy female populace.Views are personal only. Additional references: Campbell, J. C. (1992). “If I can’t have you, no one can”: Power and control in homicide of female partners. In J. Radford & D. E. H. Russell (Eds.), Femicide: The politics of woman killing (pp. 99-113). New York: Twayne. Campbell, J. C. (1995). Prediction of homicide of and by battered women. In J. C. Campbell (Ed.), Assessing the risk of dangerousness: Potential for further violence of sexual offenders, batterers, and child abusers (pp. 93-113). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Frye, V., Wilt, S., & Schomburg, D. (1999). Female homicide in New York City, 1990-1997. New York: New York City Department of Health. Retrieved from http://www.nyc.gov/ html/doh/pdf/ip/female97.pdf . Kellerman, A. L., & Mercy, J. A. (1992). Men, women and murder: Gender-specific differences in rates of fatal violence and victimization. Journal of Trauma, 33, 1-5. Woods, S. J. (in press). Normative beliefs regarding the maintenance of intimate relationships among abused and non-abused women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Greenfield, L. A., Rand, M. R., Craven, D., Klaus, P. A., Perkins, C. A., Ringel, C. et al. (1998). Violence by intimates: Analysis of data on crimes by current or former spouses, boyfriends and girlfriends. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Claudia Garcia-Moreno, Alessandra Guedes and Wendy Knerr, Understanding and addressing violence against women, (June 22, 2020, 10:00 pm) https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/77421/WHO_RHR_12.38_eng.pdf?sequence=1 Russell DEH, Van de Ven N, eds. Crimes Against Women: The Proceedings of the International Tribunal. East Palo Alto, CA: Frog in the Well; 1976. Shalhoub-Kevorkian N (2003) Reexamining femicide: Breaking the silence and crossing ‘scientific’ borders. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 28(2): 581–608. Shalhoub-Kervorkian supra Campbell JC and Runyan CW (1998) Femicide: Guest editors’ introduction. Homicide Studies 2(4): 347–352. Parikh C. K. Parik’s Textbook of, Medical Jurisprudence Forensic Medicine and Toxicology: C.B.S. Publisher and Distributor, 2000, P.72 4, Jha, P. et al. 2011.Trends in selective abortions of girls in India: analysis of nationally representative birth histories from 1990 to 2005 and census data from 1991 to 2011. The Lancet 377 (9781): 1921 – 1928. UNICEF, Children in India, (June 22, 2020, 10:00pm), https://www.unicef.org/india/children-in-india Dean Nelson; The Telegraph, India Most dangerous place for women, (June, 22, 2020, 10:05 pm), http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/9054429/India-most-dangerous-place-in-world-to-be-born-a-girl.html https://www.legalindia.com/news/conclude-female-foeticide-trials-4-months-sc-haryana Dr. Sharon Moalem, The Better Half: An Argument for the Genetic Superiority of Women Stout KD. Intimate femicide: a national demographic overview. Violence Update. 1991;1(6):3. Dawson M, Gartner R. Differences in the characteristics of intimate femicides: the role of relationship state and relationship status. Homicide Studies. 1998;2(4):378–399. Stöckl H et al (2013). The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review. The Lancet 382: 859-865. Sanjay Kumar Jain v. State, 349 [CrLJ (Pat) 2006] Pawan Kumar v. State of Haryana [309 SCC 3 (1998)] Dhan Singh v. State of UP, 3156 [CrLJ (All) 2012] Nupur Basu, Honour Killings: India’s Crying Shame available at http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/11/honour-killings-India-crying-shame Honor Diaries, Honor Killings Violence in East, (June 22, 2020, 10:35 pm) http://www.honordiaries.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/HD-FactSheet-HonorViolenceEast.pdf Al Jazeera. 2016. India sees huge spike in ‘honour’ killings.(June 22, 2020, 10:30 pm) https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/12/india-sees-huge-spike-honour-killings-161207153333597.html 242nd Law Commission Report- http://lawcommissionofindia.nic.in/reports/report242.pdf Bhagwan Dass v. State of Delhi,1312, SCC OnLine Del, 2012 Puneet Kaur Grewal, “Honour Killings and Law in India, IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2012; 5(6):28. https://www.idareact.org/femicide-when-gender-based-violence-turns-fatal/ Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Rashida Manjoo, UN Doc. A/HRC/10/16 FEMICIDE The Killing of Women and Girls Around the World Claire Laurent Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS) Vienna Liaison Office. The National Crime Record Bureau statistics https://ncrb.gov.in/crime-india-2017-0 Vas S.- Legal opinion (of the author) Galtung J (1998) Tras la Violencia, 3r: Reconstrucción, Reconciliación, Resolución: Afrontando los Efectos Visibles e Invisibles de la Guerra y la Violencia [The Three ‘Rs’ after Violence: Reconstruction, Reconciliation, Resolution. Facing the Visible and Invisible Effects of War and Violence]. Bilbao: Bakeaz, Centro Documentacion Estudios para la Paz. Banerji, Rita. 2012. Six widespread forms of femicide in India. Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Story
Thousands of health care workers could be set to strike on February 12th over pay conditions.SIPTU’s warning workers employed by Section 39 organisations will go ahead with all-out strike action unless the Government adequately deals with their demand for pay increases.This includes SIPTU members at the Cheshire Ireland centre in Letterkenny.The union’s won eight Labour Court recommendations confirming a pay linkage with other health workers providing public services.SIPTU Health Division Organiser, Paul Bell, says the pay link was acknowledged by the Taoiseach in November but there’s still been no change:Audio Playerhttp://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/siptu1pm.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. Loganair’s new Derry – Liverpool air service takes off from CODA WhatsApp By News Highland – December 28, 2017 Pinterest Google+ Facebook WhatsApp Google+ Pinterest News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th Facebook RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR DL Debate – 24/05/21 Homepage BannerNews Twitter Previous articlePub in Tyrone subject to attempted break in after robbery 48 hours beforehandNext articleGood and New Charity Shop did not keep till receipts for goods sold in shop News Highland Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic Twitter Nine til Noon Show – Listen back to Monday’s Programme Health care workers in Donegal could be set to strike in February